Municipal water supply sources, from water treatment plants, operate best at steady, design rates over relatively longer periods of time. However, demand in the water treatment distribution system constantly fluctuates. Most water treatment distribution system experience short-term peak demands, which exceed the available rate of supply. Underground service reservoir provides a suitable reserve of treated water to supply by pumping arrangement from water treatment plant to distribution system during the distribution process.
Service reservoirs are provided in the water treatment distribution system for the following function:
- To equalize the variation in hourly demand of water by the consumers to a uniform rate of supply from the source by pumping.
- To maintain the desired minimum residual pressure in the distribution system.
- To provide the required contact time for the disinfectant added in order to achieve effective disinfection.
Underground reservoir, also known as sumps serve as suction sources for pumps. These reservoirs normally are built at the site of a supply source. It is common to design a well pump station where number of well pumps discharges to an onsite reservoir. Water treatment plant also commonly have large reservoirs to hold treated water. Service pumps draw water from the reservoir and discharge into the transmission and distribution system. The reservoir at the water treatment plant or well source can be either completely buried, partially buried or completely above grade. The onsite reservoir at each well site can help to solve potential water quality problems. Water discharged from wells often contains dissolved gases and slit or grit. If this water goes through a reservoir, the gases will dissipate and the grit will settle to the reservoir bottom and these problems could be eliminated. These underground reservoir can also be used to provide storage for a portion of the overall storage volume needed in the system.
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